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What Is GPON Technology?

What is GPON?

Optical fiber networks operate on different passive optical network (PON) standards. A PON is a network system specific to fiber technology that delivers broadband network access to your home or business. One of many PON standards is GPON.

GPON stands for Gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (PON). GPON uses Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) for voice, Ethernet for data, and proprietary encapsulation for voice. This means that it uses fixed-sized cells instead of variably sized data packets. It offers faster Gbps than EPON (Ethernet passive optical network) on downstream and upstream bandwidths.

A GPON system consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) that connects several optical network terminals (ONTs/ONUs) using a passive optical distribution network (ODN).

GPON Supports

Higher data rates and bandwidth transmission

Long-reach coverage

Increased security and data encryption (supports block length of 128 bits and key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.)

All types of Ethernet protocols

GPON offers Superior quality of service (QoS) Dynamic bandwidth allocation capabilities, and Flexibility.

Any Gigabyte PON network originates in the service nodes – data centers that are part of the provider’s network supply infrastructure.
These service nodes are connected to the wider network via service node interfaces or SNIs – connectors that make the delivery of the connection possible.
The connection passes from the service nodes through the SNIs and into the Optical Line Terminals or OLTs. Since Gigabyte PON networks have a limited range of around 12 miles, service providers would typically have multiple OLTs installed in key locations where they provide network access. The OLTs function as a central hub of the network, making it possible to deliver network access to multiple users at once.
Along with OLTs, to make the delivery of the network to multiple users possible, the signal has to pass through a passive optical GPON splitter, which quite literally splits the signal into equal bundles of data. A single network can include multiple splitters depending on how many users it has. However, due to the design of the technology, a single optic fiber cannot service more than 64 end users.
After passing through the optical splitter, the signal finally arrives at the Optical Network Units, located on the user side. The ONUs receive the data from the OLTs, interpret it, and deliver it to the end users, allowing them to enjoy the content that’s being sent through the network.

It is a popular option among major telecom operators around the world. Since GPON gives you the ability to consolidate multiple services onto a single fiber transport network, people opt for GPON over other technologies.

GPON fundamentals and how it works

GPON is a point-to-multipoint access network. The main characteristic of GPON is that it uses passive splitters in the fiber optic distribution network (ODN). This allows one single feeding fiber from the Internet service provider (ISP) to serve multiple homes or businesses. Fiber optic means that fiber technology uses cables to transmit light.
For this example, we will make the optical line terminal (OLT) at your Internet service provider (ISP) headquarters the GPON system start point.
The Internet, voice/telephone, and TV data services that your ISP provides are sent from this point.
This data travels along the single fiber optical distribution network (ODN) until it reaches the passive optical splitter.
Once the data reaches the splitter, the splitter breaks the light signal into multiple signals to distribute to individual ONT/ONU equipment on your home premise or at your business to provide you with access to these services. The ONT/ONUs are the endpoint (s).

  1. The Internet, voice/telephone, and TV data services that your ISP provides are sent from this point. 
  2. This data travels along the single fiber optical distribution network (ODN) until it reaches the passive optical splitter. 
  3. Once the data reaches the splitter, the splitter breaks the light signal into multiple signals to distribute out to individual ONT/ONU equipment on your home premise or at your business to provide you with access to these services. The ONT/ONUs is the end point(s).

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